Global Dual Citizenship Database

The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset charts the rules that existed in near all states of the world since 1960 with regard to the loss or renunciation of citizenship after a citizen of a respective state voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another state.

The Dataset distinguishes between three basic rules (with some variations):

  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship leads to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin.
  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship does not lead to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin, but citizens have the possibility to voluntarily renounce their citizenship of origin.
  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship does not lead to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin and citizens do not have the possibility to voluntarily renounce their citizenship of origin.

Global trend: In 1960 the majority of countries across the world maintained the first type of rule where the voluntary citizenship of another country implied the automatic loss of the citizenship of origin. This represented the traditional negative approach towards dual citizenship. By 2019, however, seventy-five percent of countries maintain a more tolerant approach towards dual citizenship and allow citizens to voluntarily acquire the citizenship of another country, without automatic repercussions for the citizenship of origin. Most of these states, though not all, allow citizens to voluntarily renounce their citizenship after they have acquired another citizenship. This global trend towards allowing citizens to acquire another citizenship is visualized in Figure 1. While the trend is in a broadly similar direction across world regions, dual citizenship acceptance has progressed faster in the Americas and Oceania and slower in Africa and Asia. Acceptance in Europe follows the global trend.

Download the Dataset and the Codebook: The most recent version of the dataset, all previous versions and a detailed codebook are available through the Harvard Dataverse Network

We aim to regularly update the Dataset and will make updated versions available via the Harvard Dataverse.

Acknowledgement: The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset has been compiled by Maarten Vink, Gerard-René de Groot and Chun Luk of the Maastricht Center for Citizenship, Migration and Development, at Maastricht University. Research assistance has been provided by students of the Honours Programme at the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences as well as by research assistants funded by the European Research Council under the project Migrant Life Course and Legal Status Transitions (grant agreement No 682626).

The dataset is made available freely for non-commercial use by the general public. We ask that users of the database acknowledge its source when using the data in their publications.

How to cite: Vink, Maarten; De Groot, Gerard-Rene; Luk, Ngo Chun, 2015, “MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset”, doi:10.7910/DVN/TTMZ08, Harvard Dataverse, V4 [2019]. 

For comments, corrections and suggestions on the dataset, please contact Maarten Vink: 

For a comparative trend analysis see: Maarten Vink, Arjan H Schakel, David Reichel, Ngo Chun Luk, Gerard-René de Groot, The international diffusion of expatriate dual citizenship, Migration Studies, May 2019,

Abstract: While the global increase of expatriate dual citizenship acceptance over the past decades has been widely observed, the temporal and spatial contexts of this trend have remained understudied. Based on a novel dataset of expatriate dual citizenship policies worldwide since 1960 we find that dual citizenship toleration has increased in the last half century from one-third to three-quarter of states globally. We argue that these domestic policy changes should be understood in light of normative pressure in a world where restrictions on individual choice in citizenship status have become less acceptable and where increasing liberalisation is reinforced and self-sustaining through diffusion and diaspora politics. We apply Cox proportional hazard models to examine dual citizenship liberalisation and find that states are more likely to move to a tolerant policy if neighbouring states have done so and that they tend do so in conjunction with extending voting rights to citizens residing abroad and receiving remittances from abroad. Contrary to other studies we do not observe significant variation by regime type.


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