Global Dual Citizenship Database

The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset charts the rules that existed in near all states of the world since 1960 with regard to the loss or renunciation of citizenship after a citizen of a respective state voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another state.

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Figure 1. Percentage of countries accepting expatriate dual citizenship from 1960 until 2015, globally and by world regions (click on graph to enlarge)

The Dataset distinguishes between three basic rules (with some variations):

  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship leads to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin.
  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship does not lead to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin, but citizens have the possibility to voluntarily renounce their citizenship of origin.
  • The voluntary acquisition of another citizenship does not lead to the loss of the citizenship of the country of origin and citizens do not have the possibility to voluntarily renounce their citizenship of origin.

Global trend: In 1960 the majority of countries across the world maintained the first type of rule where the voluntary citizenship of another country implied the automatic loss of the citizenship of origin. This represented the traditional negative approach towards dual citizenship. By 2015, however, over seventy percent of countries maintains a more tolerant approach towards dual citizenship which allows citizens to voluntarily acquire the citizenship of another country, without automatic repercussions for the citizenship of origin. Most of these states, though not all, allow citizens to voluntarily renounce their citizenship after they have acquired another citizenship. This global trend towards allowing citizens to acquire another citizenship is visualized in Figure 1.

The Dataset also allows studying this global trend by looking at different world regions. Some findings are summarized in Table 1.

Automatic loss origin country citizenship No automatic loss, but renunciation possible No automatic loss, no renunciation possible Automatic loss origin country citizenship No automatic loss, but renunciation possible No automatic loss, no renunciation possible
  1960 1960 1960 N 2015 2015 2015 N
Africa 71.4% 14.3% 14.3% 7 35.2% 55.6% 9.3% 54
Asia 54.5% 40.9% 4.5% 22 33.3% 62.5% 4.2% 48
Europe 54.8% 41.9% 3.2% 31 27.3% 70.5% 2.3% 44
Americas 72.7% 4.5% 22.7% 22 8.6% 60.0% 31.4% 35
Oceania 66.7% 33.3% 0.0% 3 15.4% 84.6% 0.0% 13
Mean 61.18% 29.41% 9.41%   26.80% 63.40% 9.79%  
N 52 25 8 85 52 123 19 194

Table 1: Rules on consequences of voluntary acquisition of another citizenship for the citizenship of origin country, by world region in 1960 and 2015 (percentage of states per world region applying a specific rule) (click on table to enlarge)

Download the Dataset and the Codebook: The most recent version of the dataset, as well as previous versions, together with a separate codebook, are available through the Harvard Dataverse Network.

We aim to annually update the Dataset and will make updated versions available via the Harvard Dataverse.

 Caveat: The information in the dataset has been checked to the best of our knowledge. However, as in some cases our interpretation of existing provisions may be incorrect or outdated, we emphasise that individuals cannot rely on this database for legal reasons and should confirm information on national citizenship provisions with national authorities. We do not offer information or counselling to individuals interested in acquiring the citizenship of a particular country.

Acknowledgement: The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset has been compiled by Maarten Peter Vink, Gerard-René de Groot and Chun Luk of the Maastricht Center for Citizenship, Migration and Development, at Maastricht University. The dataset is made available freely for non-commercial use by the general public. We ask that users of the database acknowledge its source when using the data in their publications.

How to cite: Vink, Maarten Peter; De Groot, Gerard-Rene; Luk, Ngo Chun, [2015], “MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset”, doi:10.7910/DVN/TTMZ08, Harvard Dataverse, [V2].

For comments, corrections and suggestions on the dataset, please contact: m.vink@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

For a comparative analysis see: Maarten P. Vink, Arjan H. Schakel, David Reichel, Gerard-René de Groot and N. Chun Luk (2016). The International Diffusion of Expatriate Dual Citizenship [manuscript, 19 November 2016]

Abstract: While the global increase of expatriate dual citizenship acceptance over the past decades has been widely observed, the temporal and spatial contexts of this trend have remained understudied. Based on a novel dataset of expatriate dual citizenship policies worldwide from 1960 to 2015 we find that dual citizenship toleration has increased in the last half century from less than forty to over seventy per cent of states globally. We argue that these domestic policy changes should be understood in light of diffusion processes where tolerant policies in one state put normative pressures on policies in neighboring states. We apply hazard models to examine worldwide dual citizenship policies and find that states have a significantly higher propensity to move to a tolerant dual citizenship policy for expatriates, if neighboring states have done so. This process of policy emulation holds irrespective of regime type and suggests that interdependence matters, even in a domain where sovereignty is closely guarded. Extending voting rights to citizens residing abroad as well as the size of received remittances further increase the likelihood of accepting dual expatriate citizenship.

For the latest version of this paper, please contact: m.vink@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

Links

Global Citizenship Observatory (GLOBALCIT)

Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC)

Protection Against Statelessness Database

IDEA Voting From Abroad Database